Advanced lectures & Applications
The second course proposes 4 separate modules taught by experts in the field.
week 5 - Advanced lectures on Detectors
- Advanced lectures on Detectors
After a brief presentation of the general features of detectors, this course will describe all the modern technologies of particle detection including :
Gaseous detectors; scintillation detectors; low temperature detectors; semiconductor detectors; Cherenkov and transition radiation detectors; noble liquid detectors; new generation detectors; signal processing and electronics.
- Signal Processing and Electronics
There are no detectors without great electronics. In some cases, electronics and detectors are integrated on monolithic chips. This course will introduce the fundamental notions which experimental particle physicists need to know to design a detector.
- Gravitational wave detection
This session will start with an introduction of the recent detections of gravitational waves with the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Such detections have been made possible thanks to kilometric interferometers which are sensitive to length variations of their arms smaller than 10^-19 m. The techniques deployed in gravitational wave detectors to reach the required sensitivities will then be described.
week 6 - Data Handling & Offline Computing
- Trigger and data acquisition
Triggering and data acquisition is a key feature of many physics experiments. This course will start with event triggering and then explore several key components in use in modern data acquisition systems (Trigger, TDAQ software , FPGA , VME and modular electronics).
- C++ programming
C++ has become the reference object-oriented language in particle and astroparticle computing. After a very brief reminder, students will be brought to some of the most advanced programming notions in C++ with practical exercises.
- Python programming
Python is one of the most popular scripting languages. It is heavily used by LHC experiments in their software. Python can be freely installed on all computing plate-forms. Lots of free licence Python packages can be found on the web to solve many computing problems including formal calculation. This lecture will introduce the bases of Python programming.
- Data Handling Technologies
Data handling is one of the key domains to master in order to more efficiently understand how data are technically analysed in big scientific projects. Students will learn the key concepts and technologies used to set a data server.
week 7 - Advanced lectures and Labs
- Magnets for Particle Detectors
Superconducting magnets are among the first choice components in a collider experiment. They are also some of the most difficult parts to build and indeed some of the most expensive ones as well. The engineering knowledge of how to build big magnets such as the CMS solenoid or the ATLAS toroids is only mastered by a few labs in Europe. This course will introduce the physics and the technology of superconductivity. It will be exemplified by the ATLAS and CMS superconducting magnets.
- AHEAD Lab (Archamps High Energy Astroparticle Detector)
A practical session on the detection of extensive air cosmic showers.
- Composite Materials
Because of their exceptional mechanical properties composite materials such as glass-epoxy and carbon fibre, are now found in particle detectors. Students will be introduced to the fundamentals which will help them design and select the most appropriate materials for their future applications.
- Additive printing
Additive or 3D printing has become a prototype production technique in many domains. It helps produce mechanical parts for detectors that would be almost impossible to machine using more traditional techniques.
- Project management
This course will be given by a member of the CERN project office. The method developed here is adapted to big scientific projects in particle and astroparticle physics. As an exercise, students will have to work on planning & organising a project.
week 8 - Medical Applications
- Medical Applications
All particle detection techniques have medical applications : positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography ... Compared to lab experiments, medical imaging instruments are operated in a different context by medical doctors and medical physicists who have developed an appropriate language and set of technical features.
The course will introduce students to the world of radiotherapy and medical imaging making connections with particle detectors.
Students will work in groups on a design project for a medical application.